Estrogen, a sex hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle and is essential for women’s reproductive health, also has broader effects on the body. It influences gender characteristics and sexual behavior, protects against cardiovascular diseases and bone fragility, and contributes to temperature regulation of the brain. Recent research from University College London suggests that estrogen may have a protective role in the development of memory disorders, potentially reducing the risk of dementia. However, there is no consensus on the association between hormone replacement therapy and dementia due to various factors that can complicate large-scale studies. While estrogen has shown to be protective against vascular dementia, its impact on Alzheimer’s disease remains inconclusive. Despite these potential benefits and risks associated with hormone therapy, ongoing research aims to further elucidate estrogen’s complex roles in brain health and its potential impact on memory disorders.